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In pics: Meet the 2018 Nobel laureates

BS Web Team/New Delhi 11 Oct 18 | 02:46 PM

William Nordhaus , Nobel Prize in Economics

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Credits: Reuters

William Nordhaus and Paul Romer shared the 2018 Nobel Economics Prize for adapting economic theory to take better account of environmental issues and technological progress. 

William D Nordhaus  became the first person to create an integrated assessment model, a quantitative model that describes the global interplay between the economy and the climate. His model integrates theories and empirical results from physics, chemistry and economics. Nordhaus' model is used to examine the consequences of climate policy interventions, for example, carbon taxes

 

Paul Romer, Nobel Prize in Economics

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Credits: Reuters

 

Paul M Romer demonstrated how knowledge can function as a driver of long-term economic growth. Previous macroeconomic research lacked the details about economic decisions determining the creation of new technologies. Paul Romer solved this problem by demonstrating how economic forces govern the willingness of firms to produce new ideas. Romer's solution, initially published in 1990, laid the foundation of contemporary endogenous growth theory. The theory explains how ideas are different to other goods and require specific conditions to thrive in a market.

 

Nadia Murad, Nobel Peace Prize

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Credits: Reuters

Nadia Murad, a Yazidi rights activist and survivor of sexual slavery by Islamic State shared the 2018 Nobel Peace Prize with Denis Mukwege. Murad is an advocate for the Yazidi minority in Iraq and for refugee and women's rights in general. She was enslaved and raped by Islamic State fighters in Mosul, Iraq, in 2014. Murad said she shared the award with all Yazidis with all the Iraqis, Kurds and all the minorities and all survivors of sexual violence around the world.

Denis Mukwege, Nobel Peace Prize

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Credits: Reuters

Denis Mukwege is a doctor who helps victims of sexual violence in the Democratic Republic of Congo. Mukwege heads the Panzi Hospital in the eastern Congo city of Bukavu. The clinic receives thousands of women each year, many of them requiring surgery from sexual violence. He has performed surgery on scores of women after they had been raped by armed men, and campaigned to highlight their plight. He also provides HIV/AIDS treatment as well as free maternal care. Mukwege dedicated his Nobel award to all women affected by rape and sexual violence.

Frances Arnold, Nobel Prize for Chemistry

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Credits: Reuters

Frances Arnold of the California Institute of Technology became the fifth woman to win a chemistry Nobel. She shared the award with George Smith and Gregory Winter. Arnold, Smith and Winter won the 2018 Nobel Prize for Chemistry for harnessing the power of evolution to generate novel proteins used in everything from environmentally friendly detergents to cancer drugs. She was awarded half of the $1 million prize while Smith and Winter shared the other half

Gregory Winter , Nobel Prize for Chemistry

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Credits: Reuters

Gregory Winter was also awarded the Nobel Prize for Chemistry. His works include the world's top-selling prescription medicine -the antibody injection Humira sold by AbbVie for treating rheumatoid arthritis and other autoimmune diseases. Humira, or adalimumab, was the first drug based on Winter's work to win regulatory approval in 2002. Winter shared half of the prize with American George Smith.     

George P. Smith, Nobel Prize for Chemistry

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Credits: Reuters

George P. Smith  developed a method using a virus that infects bacteria to produce new proteins while Gregory Winter used the same phage display technique for the directed evolution of antibodies, with the aim of producing more effective medicines. Other antibody drugs at the cutting edge of medicine use the same technology, including a number of treatments that have proved highly effective against cancer.  

Donna Strickland, Nobel Prize for Physics

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Credits: Reuters

A trio of American, French and Canadian scientists won the 2018 Nobel Prize for Physics for breakthroughs in laser technology that have turned light beams into precision tools for everything from eye surgery to micro-machining. Donna Strickland became the third woman to win a Nobel for physics, after Marie Curie in 1903 and Maria Goeppert-Mayer in 1963. Strickland is the first female Nobel laureate in any field in three years.

Arthur Ashkin, Nobel Prize for Physics

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Credits: Reuters

Arthur Ashkin of Bell Laboratories in the United States won the other half of the 2018 physics prize for inventing "optical tweezers". Ashkin's work was based on the realization that the pressure of a beam of light could push microscopic objects and trap them in position. A breakthrough came in 1987, when he used the new optical tweezers to grab living bacteria without harming them. At 96, Ashkin is the oldest ever Nobel prize winner

Gerard Mourou, Nobel Prize for Physics

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Credits: Reuters

Frenchman Gerard Mourou  shared half of the physics prize with Strickland, for work on high-intensity lasers. The inventions by Mourou, Strickland and Ashkin date back to the mid-1980s and over the years they have revolutionized laser physics. Mourou and Strickland's research centered on developing the most intense laser pulses ever created by humans, paving the way for the precision instruments used today in corrective eye surgery and industrial applications.

James Allison & Tasuku Honjo , Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine

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Credits: Reuters

 American James Allison and Japanese Tasuku Honjo won the Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine for game-changing discoveries about how to harness and manipulate the immune system to fight cancer. The scientists' work in the 1990s has  led to new and dramatically improved therapies for cancers such as melanoma and lung cancer, which had previously been extremely difficult to treat. Allison and Honjo showed releasing the brakes on the immune system can unleash its power to attack cancer

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